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Tuesday, June 25, 2024

Popping out of the darkish in regards to the Whiskered Screech-Owl

Let’s begin along with her astonishing eyes. They had been enormous. If human eyes had been as massive in our faces, comparatively, we’d have eyes the scale of huge lemons. The yellow of her eyes was so intense, they appeared to glow, electrical and incandescent. They had been the one splash of coloration on her grey, well-camouflaged physique.

I held her legs between my fingers and lifted her to my face, eye-to-eye with a Whiskered Screech-Owl, one of many least-studied and most mysterious of all 19 owl species in the USA.

I had joined David Oleyar, a raptor biologist with HawkWatch Worldwide, and his analysis crew within the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona, the place he conducts what could be the solely systematic examine that features the species. “It’s one of many teams of birds we discuss with as ‘data hole species,’” he says. “The mixture of their small dimension, secretive nature, and nocturnal habits make them a problem to work with.”

Plus, Whiskered has a extra restricted vary than its cousins, the widespread Japanese and Western Screech-Owls. In the USA, Whiskered is discovered within the mountains of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico — the area’s famed Sky Islands which are biodiversity hotspots and magnets for uncommon species. The fowl’s vary continues south all through the mountainous forests of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and to northern Nicaragua.

Oleyar had captured the feminine in a mist internet as a part of his examine. She was so small: about 6 inches lengthy and weighing 86 grams (3 ounces). I used to be about 1,000 occasions her dimension. Her eyes had been framed by white eyebrows that swept into cute little ear tufts. She checked out me with solely an informal, virtually dismissive regard. I’d like to know what she noticed, me. However her wall-eyed stare was wild and impenetrable. This expertise was not about connecting with an owl. It was all about her intense animal presence.

Whiskered Screech-Owl
A Whiskered Screech-Owl clamps down on a department earlier than flying into the woods. Photograph by Charles Bergman

‘A ver owl-ly place’

Oleyar has kindly blue eyes, a white beard, a prepared snicker, and an affable, straightforward method. He’s HawkWatch’s director of long-term monitoring and group science and is predicated in Utah. Final 12 months, I spent per week in mid-July with him on the Southwestern Analysis Station, close to Portal, Arizona. The Chiricahuas, Oleyar says, are an owl hotspot. “It’s probably the most species-rich location for owls in North America,” he mentioned. “It’s distinctive on the planet. It’s a really owl-ly place.”

The station sits amongst spectacular red-rock cliff faces and sprawling pine-oak forests. 3 times a day, the clanging of a triangle dinner bell referred to as us to meals, like one thing out of the previous west. We ate at picnic tables with a very good view of a hardworking Acorn Woodpecker feeding a big and demanding chick in its nest gap in an Arizona sycamore. An Elf Owl had nested within the cavity just a few years earlier, Oleyar mentioned.

David Oleyar, a raptor biologist with HawkWatch Worldwide, collects knowledge about screech-owls and different species of the Chiricahua vary. He leads monitoring research from the Southwestern Analysis Station, close to Portal, Arizona. Photograph by Charles Bergman

He research six owl species on the station: Elf, Flammulated, Northern Pygmy, Northern Noticed-whet, Whiskered Screech, and Western Screech. Chatting after lunch, I requested him why he had chosen to check small owls and never simply owls typically.

“Other than the overall attraction of those little owls, they’re largely unstudied,” he defined. “Particularly in comparison with the massive owls.”

The Whiskered Screech-Owl is an effective instance. “There are few, if any, different long-term research of the Whiskered,” he mentioned. His mentor, Fred Gehlbach at Baylor College, did some work on the species, however his predominant curiosity was the Japanese Screech. “That’s it, for probably the most half,” Oleyar mentioned.

The Whiskered’s restriction to such a small space in the USA makes it extremely sought by birders. Companions in Flight estimates the worldwide inhabitants is 200,000 birds, about 500 of which dwell in the USA. Arizona is house to the majority of the U.S. inhabitants; solely 20-25 pairs are identified to happen in New Mexico (within the Peloncillo Mountains), in accordance with New Mexico Avian Conservation Companions.

BirdLife Worldwide doesn’t present a inhabitants estimate, and it describes the species as “growing.” In contrast, American Hen Conservancy says the owl is “reducing,” and the 2016 version of the State of North America’s Birds report included the owl on its Watch Record.

“These are the very best estimates these teams have,” Oleyar mentioned. “They’re coarse at finest and spotlight the necessity for extra efforts to survey this species and the opposite small owl species.” That’s one of many causes his undertaking is engaged on inhabitants numbers, ranges, and modifications over time amongst small owls.

Educators Kathleen Morrow, a participant in EarthWatch’s Train Earth program, admires a newly banded owl earlier than letting it go. Photograph by Charles Bergman

Working with lecturers

Throughout my week on the station, we had been joined by a gaggle of 10 elementary and highschool lecturers who had been there to volunteer and find out about small owls. The lecturers had been finding out with Oleyar as fellows in EarthWatch’s Train Earth program. It embeds lecturers with world-class scientists on analysis expeditions. They work as group scientists, studying analysis protocols, gathering knowledge, and gaining an appreciation of how data is gleaned. By means of the inspiration they achieve with the owls, they work on lesson plans that may deliver science to life for his or her college students.

“Any program that brings lecturers to the sphere to expertise conservation whereas engaged on plans for participating their college students in the identical has immense worth,” Oleyar mentioned.

The lecturers got here from all around the nation, largely working in city college districts with various scholar populations. A number of taught biology or chemistry, whereas others taught artwork and English Language Arts, and one was a grade college librarian.

Kathleen Morrow, a biology instructor at Thomas Jefferson Excessive College for Science and Know-how in Alexandria, Virginia, spoke of the significance of science training, notably within the present political local weather. “This can be a uncommon alternative to demystify science and what scientists do each day,” she mentioned. “And it provides an opportunity to attach with nature in a deeper and extra significant method. We’d like extra of those experiences, particularly for younger individuals.”

It’s onerous to think about a time in our historical past when an emphasis on science literacy in faculties could possibly be extra vital or related.

Throughout our week finding out owls, the indicators of the local weather disaster had been inescapable. Europe was struggling by a “warmth apocalypse,” and rivers just like the Loire in France had been drying up. And nearer to house, a 22-year megadrought has the reservoir at Lake Mead on the Colorado River at 30 p.c capability. Water ranges are approaching “useless pool,” which means the water could also be too low to move by Hoover Dam.

In fact, within the wider cultural local weather, hostility to science is rising. The pandemic laid naked a virulent anti-science sentiment in our nation.

It might be straightforward to really feel cynical. But these lecturers gave me a measure of hope. They sought deeper and extra significant experiences in nature and wished to make a distinction on behalf of our fragile planet. That’s heroic in my opinion.

Whiskered Screech-Owl
A Whiskered Screech-Owl receives a leg band as a part of the HawkWatch examine. After being caught in a mist internet, owls are shortly weighed, measured, banded, and launched. Photograph by Charles Bergman

Doing owl science

We discovered science by doing science, continuing on two tracks: owl surveys at night time and the seek for tree cavities by day.

For each actions, Oleyar taught us what we wanted to know in school classes, and we put it in apply within the area. For the nightly owl surveys, we discovered find out how to determine owls by their calls, find out how to play again calls, find out how to enter knowledge, and find out how to use a mist internet to seize owls.

Every night time after dinner, we headed into the mountains. Normally, we divided into two groups. One crew went with Oleyar, one other along with his colleague, Jesse Watson, who manages HawkWatch’s banding packages. Watson’s crew additionally included Kassandra Townsend, a Ph.D. candidate working with Oleyar.

To say we appeared for owls at night time is deceptive. You don’t actually “look” for owls at the hours of darkness. You hear for them. We adopted a rigorously orchestrated protocol for utilizing recorded playbacks, involving a number of minutes of silent listening at the hours of darkness, punctuated by playback of the calls of the owls. We performed the calls of every of 5 species. (The Northern Pygmy-Owl just isn’t included as a result of it’s largely diurnal.)

Whiskered Screech-Owl makes a gentle cadence of 5 to eight hoots, like Morse code, altering pitch on the finish. The decision is the one dependable option to distinguish the Whiskered from the intently associated Western Screech-Owl, which provides a bouncy name.

When an owl responded, we broke out the mist internet and waited for the silent thud of an owl crashing into the online, as unmistakable because the tug on a fishing pole if you’ve acquired a tough strike. And each bit as thrilling. There adopted a flurry of bouncing headlamps and science in motion. The owl was disentangled from the online, weighed, measured, banded, and launched. All with exceptional effectivity.

The spotlight of the week for everybody, unquestionably, was the chance to carry the cute little owls and allow them to go.

Going into the ultimate night time of our surveys, we had caught 9 owls. Each one was a Whiskered Screech-Owl. I used to be shocked. I’d thought we might seize extra species, which led to the inevitable query: Why solely Whiskered?

Oleyar was not completely certain. “It’s the primary time we’ve had a gaggle right here this late in July. It may be as a result of it’s one of the ample species of owls within the space.”

We had been all desperate to see different owls. An Elf Owl? A Flammulated Owl?

However no regrets in any respect. I got here to like the plucky little Whiskered Screech-Owls. And we had been all glad to assist Oleyar collect numerous knowledge on the enigmatic little birds.

Nonetheless, each night time we went out questioning what different species the darkness would possibly cough up.

The forests of Arizona’s Chiricahua Mountains are house to screech-owls and lots of different fowl species, attracting birders year-round. Photograph by Charles Bergman

Relying on tree cavities

All six of the small owls share one habits in frequent. All of them nest in tree cavities. They don’t make them. They don’t even alter them. They depend on woodpeckers and different creatures to make cavities, or they discover a gap in a damaged department.

They take the cavity as they discover it.

Which means cavities are the ecological middle of the little owls’ world. They’re the important thing to understanding the owls’ habitat and conservation. And maybe they’ll inform us in regards to the various assemblages of the owls over time as they reply to local weather change.

What makes a very good cavity for owls? Do they compete for them? Are cavities a limiting issue for small owls?

The cavities took us to the nitty gritty of the analysis undertaking. In a number of workshops, we discovered the talents required to map cavities and collect knowledge on them. Oleyar taught this materials like a grasp class in wildlife conservation strategies and knowledge assortment.

We discovered to determine the various species of oaks, pines, and junipers, in addition to the Arizona sycamore and Fremont cottonwood. We discovered to measure their girth or dbh (diameter at breast top). We discovered to put out examine plots and characterize the plots by tree species, tree sizes, and numbers of timber, in addition to cover cowl.

We practiced in search of cavities and coming into knowledge resembling GPS coordinates, top of the cavity, species of the tree, and bearing.

A digicam connected to a protracted pole peeks into a possible nest cavity for owls. The digicam permits biologists to examine cavities while not having to climb timber to test nests. Photograph by Charles Bergman

We discovered to make use of an modern digicam connected to the top of a protracted pole. Inserted into the cavity, it despatched a video to a small display that we held in our fingers. It enabled us to see inside cavities to find out their contents (which we hoped may be a roosting owl or chicks). Oleyar referred to as the digicam a “sport changer” in owl research: It eradicated the necessity to make harmful climbs up timber to test nests.

Then we rated every cavity on a scale of 1 to five (5 being the very best). If the cavity appeared promising, we gathered but extra knowledge on microhabitat — together with close by tree species and temperature contained in the cavity — as a part of Townsend’s Ph.D. analysis on cavities.

On the final full day, we went into the sphere and put the entire course of collectively: from laying out plots to coming into knowledge on timber to mapping cavities. To date, Oleyar has mapped 2,150 cavities in timber. He has discovered that within the Chiricahuas, 30 p.c of the nests are in Arizona sycamores.

As he defined, the cavity examine will allow “a sharper concentrate on conservation points.” Save the cavities, save the owls.

The influence of studying science from the within was highly effective. Brianne Loya, a tenth grade biology and chemistry instructor at Phoenix Union Bioscience Excessive College, described the final day within the area as “placing all of it collectively.” This was not nearly studying new concepts or info, she mentioned, “however about how science ‘is aware of.’ This was very significant to me.”

Oriana Nir, a ninth grade English Language Arts instructor in Boston Public Colleges, discovered the expertise of the week transformative. She felt nice “contributing to data by citizen science.” However the experiences went deeper. “I’ve reimagined who I’m in relation to the pure world,” she mentioned, “and what I can provide others in discovering and preserving the wonders of this world.”

By means of a rigorous utility of scientific technique, we had been studying to see a tree the best way an owl would possibly see it. We discovered numerous cavities. Just one appeared actually promising. I hoped an owl would nest in it the next breeding season.

Educator Oktay Ince, a participant in EarthWatch’s Train Earth program, holds a newly banded owl earlier than releasing it. Photograph by Charles Bergman

Crew Owlsome

“Jackpot!” Lauren Hubert exclaimed. She is a science instructor in Phoenix. It was about 1:30 a.m. on what proved to be our fifth and closing owl survey. Our two groups had simply reunited after our surveys. That night time, I used to be on Oleyar’s crew, which the lecturers referred to as “Crew Owlsome.”

Hubert, who was with the opposite squad (dubbed “Jesse and the Owls”), was ebullient. Along with listening to all 5 species within the protocol, her crew caught a Western Screech-Owl, the one owl captured that was not a Whiskered.

Our crew heard 4 species and had three captures, however solely two had been new owls. One was a recapture. After being netted as soon as, it adopted us as we labored our method down the mountain and was netted a second time.

We captured 12 Whiskered Screech-Owls for the week. Three had been recaptures. All through the summer season, Oleyar caught 22 Whiskered Screech-Owls, six of which had been already banded.

As we walked by the night time from one playback location to a different, Oleyar informed me that they’re not prepared but to attract conclusions about owl conservation and forest administration. The 2022 season was the fifth 12 months of the undertaking in Arizona out of a hoped-for 15 years. He expects to publish quite a few research from the analysis and says it received’t be too lengthy earlier than the primary works are submitted to tutorial journals.

Not one of the small owls is federally listed. A number of do have safety on the state and native ranges.

It could be that local weather change is already affecting inhabitants numbers and relations among the many species. The big variety of Whiskered Screech-Owls suggests they “have gotten extra ample.” That is pure hypothesis, Oleyar emphasised, however it might be “profitable the competitors with the smaller Flammulated Owls for nest cavities.”

As for me, I made a decision to return early within the subsequent breeding season, when the owls of different species are extra lively. I wish to see if the nice cavity we discovered will get used as a nest. Possibly, too, I’m taken by these owls. Typically, as soon as just isn’t sufficient.

Whiskered Screech-Owl at a look

As a gaggle, screech-owls do make screeching sounds that they’re named for, however they’re not as frequent as their different vocalizations. Whiskered Screech-Owls give quite a lot of trills and whistles which are utilized in pair bonding, to declare territories, and to promote nest cavities. When predators or intruders are close by, the owls produce a sequence of calls that improve in depth relying on the circumstances: from a hoot to a bark to a screech.

The identify “Whiskered” comes from the bristles on the ends of the fowl’s facial feathers, that are troublesome to see until you’re holding a fowl within the hand.

The screech-owl prefers montane pine-oak and oak forests and canyons with oak and sycamore timber. The species is discovered at elevations from 1,000-2,900 meters (3,280-9,514 toes) from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico to northern Nicaragua.

Since 2018, eBird customers have reported the fowl at a number of canyons in Arizona, together with Cave Creek, Madera, Huachuca, Ramsey, and Miller and on Mt. Lemmon. In New Mexico, most studies have come from Clanton Canyon.

This text seems within the Could/June 2023 concern of BirdWatching journal.

Birders information to southeast Arizona

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